Background. Morphological diagnosis of aspergillosis sometimes poses great difficulties due to the fact that molds of the genus Aspergillus are very sensitive to the use of antimicrobial therapy and change under its influence. In this regard, we provide information about aspergillosis of the female genital organs, discovered accidentally during an autopsy.
The purpose of the study is to conduct a complex pathomorphological analysis of biopsy, operative and sectional gynecological material of women with secondary immunodeficiency conditions, for early diagnosis of aspergillosis (which is the key to a favorable outcome of the disease), differential diagnosis and detection of invasive forms of aspergillosis.
Materials & Methods. We analyzed the autopsies of 4,796 women who died in Odesa region from 2009 to 2022. Autopsies revealed 7 cases of aspergillosis with damage to the female reproductive system. All of them were found in women who had confirmed HIV infection. In 5 cases, women additionally suffered from chronic alcoholism.
Results. Based on the results of these cases, it can be stated that the detection of characteristic mycelium in the preparations is a reliable sign of aspergillosis, but their absence does not deny this disease. Aspergillus hyphae change as the process develops: they can be weakly stained, and with dystrophic phenomena and the presence of necrotic fragments of mycelium, it can be almost colorless when using hematoxylin and eosin. While necrosis, tissue detritus is observed in the center of the granuloma, fibrous structures, fungal hyphae are formed perifocally. To confirm the diagnosis, it is important to detect granulomatous productive inflammation, conidial heads, inflammatory infiltration, microabscesses, foci of calcifications. However, against the background of immunodeficiency, it is not always possible to see the "classic morphological picture" of aspergillosis. In addition, detection of characteristic mycelium is possible only in a proportion of patients.
Conclusions. When examining the autopsy material of deceased women with immunodeficiency states, attention should be paid to the specific etiology of inflammatory processes of the reproductive system and the nature of the inflammatory process, the presence of Aspergillus hyphae and mycelia. The presence of morphological changes characteristic of aspergillosis allows to conduct a diagnostic search in the right direction. Detection of an invasive form of aspergillosis may indicate the presence of an immunodeficient state.
Keywords: aspergillosis, female reproductive system, immunodeficiency state, HIV infection, uterus, mammary gland, drug addiction.
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