Background. Chronic diabetic foot ulcers and wounds are significant complications associated with diabetes, comprising approximately 85% of purulent-necrotic lesions affecting the lower extremities. The development of these wounds is influenced by pathogenetic factors such as hyperglycemia, neuropathy, and existing infections, which contribute to metabolic disturbances, including tissue hypoxia and the activation of proteolytic enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
Aim. To explore the therapeutic potential of autologous plasminogen in facilitating the healing process of diabetic wounds through the modulation of MMP activity.
Materials and Methods. The study enrolled 45 patients diagnosed with chronic diabetic wounds, who were assigned to two distinct groups. The control group (n=25) received conventional treatment approaches, while the intervention group consisted of 20 patients treated with autologous plasminogen applications.
Results. After 18 days of treatment, a substantial reduction of 3.5-fold in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was observed within the intervention group, accompanied by complete wound closure in 16 patients. Additionally, four patients underwent autodermoplasty, successfully achieving wound defect closure through effective graft integration. In contrast, the control group exhibited consistently elevated MMP activity levels throughout the entire observation period.
Conclusions. The activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in chronic diabetic wounds reaches dramatic levels, making spontaneous wound healing impossible. The application of autologous Pg allows modulation of this activity and creates favorable conditions for wound healing by reducing excessive MMP activity, improving blood supply, and resolving inflammatory processes.
Keywords: chronic wounds, diabetes mellitus, matrix metalloproteinases, plasminogen, autodermoplasty.
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