One of the main prerequisites for creation and dissemination of bioethics in the world was the concept of dual use in medical and biological sciences, which is defined as the direction of unintentional creation of biological threats in research or implementation of new biotechnologies. To determine the range of dual-use research that could potentially generate products, technologies, or knowledge whose misuse could harm large numbers of people or the environment and that are biosafety-relevant, the international term Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC) is used. Actualization of the debate on the dilemma of dual use in biomedical sciences is due to, on the one hand, the international community's attempt to minimize the potential for destructive use of biomedical research, on the other hand, the active search for effective ways to raise awareness of their social and moral responsibility for implementation of the results of scientific developments in the field of life. This article considers the definition of terms that define the field of DURC in the context of biosafety, which in recent decades have undergone a number of semantic changes. The article also outlines the modern general concept of DURC, defines the categories by which DURC is defined, and outlines the scope of policy on the implementation of control over DURC. Informing the scientific community engaged in biomedical research about the problem issues of DURC biotechnology is a key component of biosafety. Modern biotechnology and related biosafety issues should be applied to society needs, but without compromising human and environmental safety. Systematic consideration of all these disputable questions of the dual-use dilemma with the involvement of all stakeholders will allow to form a rational biosafety policy for biotechnology.
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