The review presents a modern view on the features of the course and treatment of acute pancreatitis, based on a cascade of pathophysiological mechanisms of this disease. A number of concepts of development and course of acute pancreatitis on the basis of randomized prospective and retrospective researches devoted to this problem are considered. Attention is paid to the mechanisms of development of organ failure in acute pancreatitis. In accordance with the above, the main positions of treatment measures for acute pancreatitis, which are based on the principles of tactics "step-up approach" were highlighted. Among them, attention is focused on the features of the conservative treatment program, minimally invasive surgical interventions, as well as the management of the postoperative period of patients. Minimally invasive surgical interventions perform the main tasks of surgical treatment in acute pancreatitis, but significantly reduce surgical trauma compared to "open" methods. Adequate management of the postoperative period of patients is carried out through the implementation of protocols "fast-track surgery".
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