P.І. SHATILOV AS A PUBLIC ACTOR, SCIENTIST, FIGHTER WITH EPIDEMIC DISEASES: TO THE CENTENARY OF DEATH

Abstract

Prerequisites. The relevance of the study is caused by the fact that the personality of P. Shatilov does not have a sufficient scientific reflection in the literature from the standpoint and with the use of methods of studying medical local lore. In particular, historical research methods are neglected, however, they can be used to study the work of P. Shatilov in Kharkov in more detail during the epidemics that engulfed the city in 1919-1921. Today, when the whole world suffers from coronavirus infection, it is extremely important to give an example of medical struggle in emergencies, the victories of P. Shatilov not only as a physician but also as a citizen, because such examples instill responsibility to society. 

Task was to provide an updated biographical study of P. Shatilov for the centenary of his death, taking into account the methods of historical research, which had not previously been used in works of this kind. After all, medical personnel require a wider use of methods than previously represented biographical studies on the figure of P. Shatilov. To reproduce the biography of a scientist on a historical background, highlighting not only personal data, but also depicting the era in which the scientist lived and worked. 

Materials and methods. The results of similar studies have indicated that it is necessary to rely on conceptually important general scientific epistemological principles: historicism, objectivity, a combination of both logic and historicity, systematicity. The same methods were used in this study. The methodological basis of this type of research is a specific group of approaches and methods that are used for systematic analysis of the general historical process and medical personalia as an integral part of historical and medical knowledge. The biographical approach, thanks to which the historical reality is considered in time and space, widely covers the problem in a large historical context is a leading one. Phenomenological and paradigmatic approaches provide the necessary scientific tools to reproduce the atmosphere of the time period, reconstruct the preconditions for the formation of worldviews of P. Shatilov, clarify the sources of influence on personality development, the formation of views and beliefs of the scientist, generalization of views and beliefs and his impact on the development of medical science. The high share of this innovative and traditional form of research is provided upon the condition of following the principle of historicism, objectivity of coverage of facts, adequacy in the use of all sources of information, as well as avoiding idealization of the provisions and ideas of the past, giving them a dogmatic status. 

Results. As a result of a comprehensive study, a medical personalia of P. Shatilov was created, which is based on the application of a comprehensive methodological approach. This  is what distinguishes this study from previously created ones and provides an example to researchers for studying topics related to personalities. 

Conclusions. P.I. Shatilov's work in Kharkiv in recent years has been marked by difficulties in combating the plagues that have engulfed the city. However, the scientist tried to introduce a systematic action to combat plagues, based on the principles of contemporary scientific knowledge.

 

 

 

https://doi.org/10.35339/ic.8.2.69-73
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