cell death
reactive oxygen species


The paper deals with the role of flow cytometry in assessing the biocompatibility and safety profiles of nanomaterials. Flow cytometry is a powerful tool to characterize the impact of various exogenous factors on different cell populations due to its ability to register optical and fluorescence characteristics of cells analyzing multiple parameters simultaneously. An overview of flow cytometry application for evaluating the redox state of cells, viability and cell death modes (apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, autophagy), and pro-inflammatory effects of nanoparticles is provided.

Flow cytometry offers rapid, informative, quite cost-effective and multi-angled analysis of safety profiles of nanomaterials taking into account the key mechanisms of their toxic action. Recent advances in flow cytometry technologies and the availability of commercial automated cell counters make flow cytometry a convenient research tool for in vitro nanotoxicology. However, the field requires the development of standardized flow cytometry protocols for nanotoxicity testing.



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